This amendment provides for senators to be elected the way members of the House are—by direct election of the people.
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In 1895 the Supreme Court had declared a federal income tax law unconstitutional. This amendment reversed that decision and authorized a tax on income.
This amendment was designed to protect the right of African-Americans to vote and has served as the foundation for such legislation as the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
After the disputed election of 1800, this amendment required separate designation of presidential and vice presidential candidates. The 12th Amendment also specifies how the president and vice president are to be selected should neither candidate obtain the votes of a majority of the electors.
When the Supreme Court held in the 1793 case Chisholm v. Georgia that a state could be sued in federal court under Article III of the Constitution, this amendment was rapidly adopted.